Oscar Directors: Penn, Arthur–Background, Career, Awards, Filmography (Cum Advantage)

September 24, 2020

Arthur Penn Career Summation

Occupational Inheritance:

Nationality: US

Social Class: middle class, mother nurse; father watchmaker.

Race/Ethnicity/Religion: Jewish

Family:

Formal Education:

Training: While stationed in Britain in WWII he became interested in theater.

Inspiration: Orson Welles Citizen Kane

First Film: The Left Handed Gun, 1958, aged 36

Breakthrough: The Miracle Worker, 1962; aged 40

First Oscar Nomination: The Miracle Worker, 1962; aged 40

Gap between First Film and First Nom: 4 years

Other Oscars:

Other Oscar Nominations: Bonnie and Clyde, 1967

Oscar Awards:

Nominations Span:

Genre (specialties): various

Collaborators: Warren Beatty as actor

Last Film: Penn & Teller Get Killed, 1989; aged 67

Retirement: Last Film and Death: 21 years, 1989-2010

Contract:

Career Length: 1958-1989; 31 years

Career Output: small (14 features)

Career Shape: In the 1980s, Penn’s career lost momentum

Marriage: one, actress, 1955 until his death (55 years)

Politics: democrat

Death: 88, one day after birthday

Arthur Hiller Penn (September 27, 1922 – September 28, 2010) was an American director and producer of film, television and theater. Closely associated with the American New Wave, Penn directed critically acclaimed films throughout the 1960s such as the drama The Chase (1966), the biographical crime film Bonnie and Clyde (1967) and the comedy Alice’s Restaurant (1969). He also got attention for his revisionist Western Little Big Man (1970).

By the mid-1970s his films were received with much less enthusiasm. In the 1990s he returned to stage and television direction and production, including an executive producer role for the crime series Law & Order.

He had been nominated for three Best Director Oscars, a BAFTA, a Golden Globe, two Emmys, and two Directors Guild of America Awards.

He was the recipient of several honorary accolades, including an Honorary Golden Bear, a Tony Award, and an Akira Kurosawa Award from the San Francisco Film Festival.

Penn was born to a Russian Jewish family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Sonia (Greenberg), a nurse, and Harry Penn, a watchmaker. He was the younger brother of Irving Penn, the successful fashion photographer. During his early years, he moved in with his mother after she divorced his father. Some time after, he came back to his sickly father, leading him to run his father’s watch repair shop.

At 19, he was drafted into the United States Army for service during WWII (1943-1946). While stationed in Britain, he became interested in theater.

He started to direct and take part in shows being put on for the soldiers around England at the time. As Penn grew up, he became increasingly interested in film, especially after seeing the Orson Welles film Citizen Kane. He later attended Black Mountain College in North Carolina, and was a featured commentator in the documentary Fully Awake about the college.

After making a name for himself as a director of quality TV dramas, Penn made his feature debut with a western, The Left Handed Gun (1958) for Warner Brothers. A retelling of the Billy the Kid legend, it was distinguished by Paul Newman’s sharp portrayal of the outlaw as a psychologically troubled youth (the role was originally intended for the archetypal portrayer of troubled teens, James Dean). The production completed in only 23 days, but Warner Brothers reedited the film against his wishes with a new ending he disapproved of. The film subsequently failed upon release in North America, but was well received in Europe.

Penn’s second film was The Miracle Worker (1962), the story of Anne Sullivan’s struggle to teach the blind and deaf Helen Keller how to communicate. It garnered two Academy Awards for its leads Anne Bancroft and Patty Duke. Penn had won a Tony Award for directing the stage production, written by William Gibson, also starring Bancroft and Duke,[7] and he had directed Bancroft’s Broadway debut in playwright Gibson’s first Broadway production, Two for the Seesaw.

Penn began working on The Train in France in June and August 1963 when star Burt Lancaster had Penn fired after three days of Penn’s filming and called on John Frankenheimer to take over the film.

In 1965 Penn directed Mickey One. Heavily influenced by the French New Wave, it was the dreamlike story of a standup comedian (played by Warren Beatty) on the run from sinister, ambiguous forces. In 2010, Penn commented: “You know, you could not have gone through the Second World War with all that nonsense with Russia being an ally and then being the big black monster. It was an absurd time. The McCarthy period was ridiculous and humiliating, deeply humiliating. When I finally did ‘Mickey One’, it was in repudiation of the kind of fear that overtook free people to the point where they were telling on each other and afraid to speak out. It just astonished me, really astonished me. I mean, I was a vet, so it was nothing like what we thought we were fighting for.”

Penn’s next film was The Chase (1966) a thriller following events in a small corrupt Southern town on the day an escaped convict, played by Robert Redford, returns. Although not a major success, The Chase nonetheless caught the mood of the turbulent times, a ‘state of the nation’ tale of racism, corruption and the violence endemic in American society.[citation needed] Also that year, he directed the stage version of the thriller Wait Until Dark starring Lee Remick and Robert Duvall.

He reunited with Warren Beatty for the gangster film Bonnie and Clyde (1967). The film went on to become a worldwide phenomenon. It was strongly influenced by the French New Wave and itself went on to make a huge impression on a younger generation of filmmakers.  There was a strong resurgence in the “love on the run” subgenre in the wake of Bonnie and Clyde, peaking with Badlands (1973; in which Penn received acknowledgement in the credits).

At the time he had completed Bonnie and Clyde, Penn was residing in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, when he heard a story of a large-scale littering incident that had happened in the town two years prior. He contacted Arlo Guthrie and not only received permission to adapt his song “Alice’s Restaurant Massacree” into a film, but also secured Guthrie’s participation as well as several other Stockbridge town residents while also filming in many of the same locations where the events took place. The film Alice’s Restaurant was released in 1969.[10] His next film after this was a return to the western genre, Little Big Man (1970), a “shaggy dog” account of the life of a white man (played by Dustin Hoffman) who gets adopted into the Cheyenne tribe.

In 1973 Penn provided a segment for a promotional film for the Olympics, Visions of Eight along with several other major directors such as John Schlesinger and Miloš Forman. His next film was a paranoid thriller set in Los Angeles, Night Moves (1975) about a private detective (played by Gene Hackman) on the trail of a runaway. Next came a comic western, The Missouri Breaks (1976), a ramshackle, eccentric story of a horse thief (Jack Nicholson) facing off with an eccentric bounty hunter (played by Marlon Brando).

In the 1980s, Penn’s career began to lose its momentum with critics and audiences: Four Friends (1981) was a traumatic look back at the 1960s, returning to the old themes of Vietnam, civil rights, sexual politics, and drugs.

Target (1985), a mainstream thriller reuniting the director with Gene Hackman, and Dead of Winter (1987), a horror/thriller in the style of Hitchcock, which he took over directing during production.

Penn returned to work in television, including an executive producer role for the crime series Law & Order.

Throughout the years, Penn had maintained an affiliation with Yale University, occasionally teaching classes there.

In 1955, he married actress Peggy Maurer. They had two children, a son, Matthew Penn and a daughter, Molly Penn.

In July 2010, Penn reflected on his life and career, including his relationship with Alger Hiss: …During that period [Mickey One] I met Alger Hiss, and we became very close friends. In fact, Alger got married here in my apartment. And so I became more of a student of the Hiss period than I knew what to do with, frankly.[9]

In July 2009, Penn was hospitalized with pneumonia. He died in Manhattan, on September 28, 2010, a day after his 88th birthday from congestive heart failure.

Filmography

1958 The Left Handed Gun Directorial Debut
1962 The Miracle Worker OCIC Award (San Sebastián International Film Festival)
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated–Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film
1965 Mickey One Nominated–Golden Venice Lion
The Train Uncredited;
Replaced by John Frankenheimer during 1st week of filming
1966 The Chase
1967 Bonnie and Clyde Bodil Award for Best American Film
Kinema Junpo Award for Best Foreign Film
Kinema Junpo Award for Best Foreign Director
Mar del Plata Festival Award for Best Film (International Competition)
Mar del Plata Critics Award for Best Film
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Film
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Nominated–Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film
1969 Alice’s Restaurant Nominated–Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated–Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay
1970 Little Big Man FIPRESCI Prize (Moscow International Film Festival)
1973 Visions of Eight Segment: “The Highest”
1975 Night Moves
1976 The Missouri Breaks
1981 Four Friends
1985 Target
1987 Dead of Winter
1989 Penn & Teller Get Killed
1995 Lumière and Company 1 segment

Stage
Year Title Notes
1958 Two for the Seesaw Nominated–Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play
1959 The Miracle Worker Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play
1960 An Evening with Mike Nichols and Elaine May
All the Way Home Nominated–Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play
Toys in the Attic
1962 In the Courting House
1963 Lorenzo
1964 Golden Boy
1966 Wait Until Dark
1976 Sly Fox
1977 Golda
1982 Monday After the Miracle
2000 Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
2002 Fortune’s Fool
Television
Year Title Notes
1953 Gulf Playhouse 7 episodes
1953–1955 Goodyear Television Playhouse 6 episodes
The Philco Television Playhouse 11 episodes
1954 Justice Episode: “Man on the Hunt”
1954–1955 Producers’ Showcase 2 episodes
1955–1956 Playwrights ’56 7 episodes
1957–1958 Playhouse 90 5 episodes
Nominated–Primetime Emmy Award for Best Direction – One Hour
1968 Flesh and Blood Television film
1993 The Portrait Television film
1996 Inside Television film
2000–2001 Law & Order Executive producer – 13 episodes
Nominated–Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series
2001 100 Centre Street Episode: “The Fix”