Rebel Without a Cause: Critical Vs. Popular Response (LGBTQ, Gay)

We now accept as given that the notion of the “teenager” as a powerful cultural identity and social force is inconceivable without the influence of “Rebel Without a Cause.”

Critical consensus holds that Nicholas Ray’s 1955 youth film created an enduring teenage myth, an archetype of teen rebellion, which is as applicable today as it was six decades ago.

Gay Directors, Gay Films? By Emanuel Levy (Columbia University Press, August 2015).

However, initially Warner didn’t know what to make of the film or how to market it. The studio underestimated the potential popularity of “Rebel” by a long shot, not knowing what to expect upon its release. Warner considered “Rebel” to be just a B-movie until the first audience feedback. It’s hard to believe, but at one point, Jane Mansfield was considered for the role of Judy, later cast with Natalie Wood.

Critics, too, were baffled by the movie. The middlebrow Bosley Crowther, then the dean of the New York Critics, described “Rebel” in the N.Y Times as “excessively graphic exercise, noting “Like “Blackboard Jungle,” it is a picture to make the hair stand on end.” A conservative critic, who used a social-realist perspective, Crowther raised doubts over the psychology and motivation of the trio of troubled youngsters, played by James Dean, Natalie Wood, and Sal Mineo. He wrote: “Screenwriter Stewart Stern’s proposal that these youngsters would be the way they are for the skimpy reasons he shows us may be a little hard to believe. Dean, Stern says, is a mixed-up rebel because his father lacks decisiveness and strength.”

Once again, it was the French critics of “Cahiers du Cinema,” then edited by Andre Bazin and his coterie of aspiring directors (Truffaut, Godard, Chabrol, and Roehmer), who were the first to evaluate seriously the artistic merits of both the film and its director. In the process, Nicholas Ray became one of their cherished idols and an important figure in the evolution of auteur theory in France and later in the U.S.

An ardent admirer of “Rebel,” Truffaut was the first to place Dean rightfully within the top echelon of movie stars that included Lillian Gish, Charlie Chaplin, and Ingrid Bergman. Explaining Dean’s appeal, Truffaut wrote: “In James Dean, today’s youth discovers itself. Less for the reasons that are usually advanced, violence, sadism, hysteria, pessimism, cruelty, and filth, than for others infinitely more simple and commonplace, modesty of feeling, continual fantasy life, moral purity.”

It took longer, though, for American critics to take the movie seriously as an art work. Andrew Sarris and Pauline Kael, the two leading critics of the 1960s and 1970s, who had seen the film upon its initial release but didn’t write about it until much later, had strong reservations about the narrative and “crappy” dialogue.

Sarris claimed that the French critics overestimated “Rebel,” because they didn’t speak English (they saw the film in translation) and thus couldn’t evaluate the social worker-psychobabble dialogue, instead focusing on Ray’s mise-en-scene and visuals. Kael came even stronger against the “terrible” script, though she acknowledged the film’s impact.

History, or the hand of fate, came to the rescue of Warner. Just three weeks after the death of Dean, on September 30, 1955, “Rebel” was released. Dean was on his way to a sports-car race in Salinas, California, when he ran his silver Porsche off the highway and into the mythology of popular culture. “Rebel” opened at New York City’s Astor Theatre on October 26 and in Los Angeles on November 9 to a fanatical response.

Eventually “Rebel” grossed $4,600,000, an amazing figure for a “B-movie.” Little did Warner realize that Rebel’s effect would prove to be much greater than that of Dean’s “A-movies,” “Giant” and “East of Eden.” “Rebel” would become one of the first films to be inducted into the National Film Register.

The influence of “Rebel” on Hollywood was great. The film served as a blueprint for all youth rebellion films in the future. In 1955, Hollywood released just two such youth films. In 1956, the year after “Rebel”‘s release, there were ten; in 1957, there were forty.

By the mid-1950s, teenagers accounted for more than half of the ticket buyers for Hollywood movies. “Rebel” was the first film to connect with teen audiences on their own terms. The teen market had been waiting to take off, and “Rebel” offered the catalyst for the market to explode.

The imitations of “Rebel” included several genre variations, such as the youth out-of-control films (“Crime in the Streets,” “Untamed Youth,” “Juvenile Jungle”) and the confused, mixed-up youth films (“Hot Rod Girl,” “Dragstrip Girl,” “Hot Car Girl,” “Dragstrip Riot”).

The film’s influence continues to this day, with such recent and well-known films as: “Bonnie and Clyde,” “The Last Picture Show,” “The Graduate,” “American Graffiti,” “Risky Business,” “The Outsiders,” Footloose,” and “Saturday Night Fever,” all of which contain strains of “Rebel Without a Cause.”

Moreover, entire films have been devoted to the mythic subject of James Dean, such as “September 30, 1955,” directed by James Bridges. Director Robert Altman has made two films: “The James Dean Story” and “Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean.”

One reason why “Rebel” continues to be a powerful film today is that many filmmakers grew up with it. James Bridges, who directed “September 30, 1955,” visited every “Rebel” location when he first moved to Hollywood as a young man. For years, Bridges proudly told how one night he and Dennis Hopper stood atop Laurel Canyon yelling, “Jimmy, Jimmy, which star are you”

Many actors who have crossed the screen over the past 50 years admit to being in the James Dean tradition. Dean’s acting style has had tremendous influence on American acting. The list of Dean disciples includes Paul Newman, Steve McQueen, Dennis Hopper, Al Pacino, Jack Nicholson, Warren Beatty, Robert De Niro, Harry Dean Stanton, Richard Gere, Sam Shepard, Matt Dillon, Mickey Rourke, Kevin Bacon, and Nicholas Cage, among others.

These are all male stars, but Dean’s influence can also be seen in the work of certain actresses, such as Tuesday Weld, Natalie Wood, and later, Debra Winger and Rosanna Arquette, all women who have mastered Dean’s brand of female rebelliousness and even toughness.

Dean’s performance had a great influence on the young Elvis Presley, who wanted to play the Dean part in “The James Dean Story,” after Dean’s death. Nicholas Ray recalled: “I was sitting in the cafeteria at MGM one day, and Elvis came over. He knew I was a friend of Jimmy’s and had directed “Rebel,” so he got down on his knees before me and began to recite whole passages of dialogue from the script. Elvis must have seen “Rebel” a dozen times by then for he remembered every one of Jimmy’s lines.”

“I could do it easy,” Elvis said of Dean’s part, “I want to play that more than anything else.” When Elvis first arrived in Hollywood, he began his acting career by hanging out with Dean’s co-stars: Nick Adams, Dennis Hopper, Sal Mineo, and Natalie Wood.

Gay Context:

Gay viewers relate in a particularly emotional way to the scene in which Plato (played by Out actor Sal Mineo, when he was teenager) proposes to Jim (Dean): “Hey, you wanna come home with me. If you wanna come, we could talk and then in the morning, we could have breakfast.”

(And what he meant but did no say is what they would do in between the talking, late into the night, and having breakfast, in the morning.”

Oscar Nominations: 3

Motion Picture Story: Nicholas Ray

Supporting Actor: Sal Mineo

Supporting Actress: Natalie Wood

Oscar Awards: None

Oscar Context:

The winner of the Motion Picture Story was Daniel Fuchs for “Love Me or Leave Me,” starring Cagney and Doris Day.

Jack Lemmon won the Supporting Actor Oscar for “Mister Roberts,” and Jo Van Fleet the Supporting Actress for “East of Eden.”

xosotin chelseathông tin chuyển nhượngcâu lạc bộ bóng đá arsenalbóng đá atalantabundesligacầu thủ haalandUEFAevertonxosokeonhacaiketquabongdalichthidau7m.newskqbdtysokeobongdabongdalufutebol ao vivofutemaxmulticanaisonbetbsport.fitonbet88.oooi9bet.bizhi88.ooookvip.atf8bet.atfb88.cashvn88.cashshbet.atbóng đá world cupbóng đá inter milantin juventusbenzemala ligaclb leicester cityMUman citymessi lionelsalahnapolineymarpsgronaldoserie atottenhamvalenciaAS ROMALeverkusenac milanmbappenapolinewcastleaston villaliverpoolfa cupreal madridpremier leagueAjaxbao bong da247EPLbarcelonabournemouthaff cupasean footballbên lề sân cỏbáo bóng đá mớibóng đá cúp thế giớitin bóng đá ViệtUEFAbáo bóng đá việt namHuyền thoại bóng đágiải ngoại hạng anhSeagametap chi bong da the gioitin bong da lutrận đấu hôm nayviệt nam bóng đátin nong bong daBóng đá nữthể thao 7m24h bóng đábóng đá hôm naythe thao ngoai hang anhtin nhanh bóng đáphòng thay đồ bóng đábóng đá phủikèo nhà cái onbetbóng đá lu 2thông tin phòng thay đồthe thao vuaapp đánh lô đềdudoanxosoxổ số giải đặc biệthôm nay xổ sốkèo đẹp hôm nayketquaxosokq xskqxsmnsoi cầu ba miềnsoi cau thong kesxkt hôm naythế giới xổ sốxổ số 24hxo.soxoso3mienxo so ba mienxoso dac bietxosodientoanxổ số dự đoánvé số chiều xổxoso ket quaxosokienthietxoso kq hôm nayxoso ktxổ số megaxổ số mới nhất hôm nayxoso truc tiepxoso ViệtSX3MIENxs dự đoánxs mien bac hom nayxs miên namxsmientrungxsmn thu 7con số may mắn hôm nayKQXS 3 miền Bắc Trung Nam Nhanhdự đoán xổ số 3 miềndò vé sốdu doan xo so hom nayket qua xo xoket qua xo so.vntrúng thưởng xo sokq xoso trực tiếpket qua xskqxs 247số miền nams0x0 mienbacxosobamien hôm naysố đẹp hôm naysố đẹp trực tuyếnnuôi số đẹpxo so hom quaxoso ketquaxstruc tiep hom nayxổ số kiến thiết trực tiếpxổ số kq hôm nayso xo kq trực tuyenkết quả xổ số miền bắc trực tiếpxo so miền namxổ số miền nam trực tiếptrực tiếp xổ số hôm nayket wa xsKQ XOSOxoso onlinexo so truc tiep hom nayxsttso mien bac trong ngàyKQXS3Msố so mien bacdu doan xo so onlinedu doan cau loxổ số kenokqxs vnKQXOSOKQXS hôm naytrực tiếp kết quả xổ số ba miềncap lo dep nhat hom naysoi cầu chuẩn hôm nayso ket qua xo soXem kết quả xổ số nhanh nhấtSX3MIENXSMB chủ nhậtKQXSMNkết quả mở giải trực tuyếnGiờ vàng chốt số OnlineĐánh Đề Con Gìdò số miền namdò vé số hôm nayso mo so debach thủ lô đẹp nhất hôm naycầu đề hôm naykết quả xổ số kiến thiết toàn quốccau dep 88xsmb rong bach kimket qua xs 2023dự đoán xổ số hàng ngàyBạch thủ đề miền BắcSoi Cầu MB thần tàisoi cau vip 247soi cầu tốtsoi cầu miễn phísoi cau mb vipxsmb hom nayxs vietlottxsmn hôm naycầu lô đẹpthống kê lô kép xổ số miền Bắcquay thử xsmnxổ số thần tàiQuay thử XSMTxổ số chiều nayxo so mien nam hom nayweb đánh lô đề trực tuyến uy tínKQXS hôm nayxsmb ngày hôm nayXSMT chủ nhậtxổ số Power 6/55KQXS A trúng roycao thủ chốt sốbảng xổ số đặc biệtsoi cầu 247 vipsoi cầu wap 666Soi cầu miễn phí 888 VIPSoi Cau Chuan MBđộc thủ desố miền bắcthần tài cho sốKết quả xổ số thần tàiXem trực tiếp xổ sốXIN SỐ THẦN TÀI THỔ ĐỊACầu lô số đẹplô đẹp vip 24hsoi cầu miễn phí 888xổ số kiến thiết chiều nayXSMN thứ 7 hàng tuầnKết quả Xổ số Hồ Chí Minhnhà cái xổ số Việt NamXổ Số Đại PhátXổ số mới nhất Hôm Nayso xo mb hom nayxxmb88quay thu mbXo so Minh ChinhXS Minh Ngọc trực tiếp hôm nayXSMN 88XSTDxs than taixổ số UY TIN NHẤTxs vietlott 88SOI CẦU SIÊU CHUẨNSoiCauVietlô đẹp hôm nay vipket qua so xo hom naykqxsmb 30 ngàydự đoán xổ số 3 miềnSoi cầu 3 càng chuẩn xácbạch thủ lônuoi lo chuanbắt lô chuẩn theo ngàykq xo-solô 3 càngnuôi lô đề siêu vipcầu Lô Xiên XSMBđề về bao nhiêuSoi cầu x3xổ số kiến thiết ngày hôm nayquay thử xsmttruc tiep kết quả sxmntrực tiếp miền bắckết quả xổ số chấm vnbảng xs đặc biệt năm 2023soi cau xsmbxổ số hà nội hôm naysxmtxsmt hôm nayxs truc tiep mbketqua xo so onlinekqxs onlinexo số hôm nayXS3MTin xs hôm nayxsmn thu2XSMN hom nayxổ số miền bắc trực tiếp hôm naySO XOxsmbsxmn hôm nay188betlink188 xo sosoi cầu vip 88lô tô việtsoi lô việtXS247xs ba miềnchốt lô đẹp nhất hôm naychốt số xsmbCHƠI LÔ TÔsoi cau mn hom naychốt lô chuẩndu doan sxmtdự đoán xổ số onlinerồng bạch kim chốt 3 càng miễn phí hôm naythống kê lô gan miền bắcdàn đề lôCầu Kèo Đặc Biệtchốt cầu may mắnkết quả xổ số miền bắc hômSoi cầu vàng 777thẻ bài onlinedu doan mn 888soi cầu miền nam vipsoi cầu mt vipdàn de hôm nay7 cao thủ chốt sốsoi cau mien phi 7777 cao thủ chốt số nức tiếng3 càng miền bắcrồng bạch kim 777dàn de bất bạion newsddxsmn188betw88w88789bettf88sin88suvipsunwintf88five8812betsv88vn88Top 10 nhà cái uy tínsky88iwinlucky88nhacaisin88oxbetm88vn88w88789betiwinf8betrio66rio66lucky88oxbetvn88188bet789betMay-88five88one88sin88bk88xbetoxbetMU88188BETSV88RIO66ONBET88188betM88M88SV88Jun-68Jun-88one88iwinv9betw388OXBETw388w388onbetonbetonbetonbet88onbet88onbet88onbet88onbetonbetonbetonbetqh88mu88Nhà cái uy tínpog79vp777vp777vipbetvipbetuk88uk88typhu88typhu88tk88tk88sm66sm66me88me888live8live8livesm66me88win798livesm66me88win79pog79pog79vp777vp777uk88uk88tk88tk88luck8luck8kingbet86kingbet86k188k188hr99hr99123b8xbetvnvipbetsv66zbettaisunwin-vntyphu88vn138vwinvwinvi68ee881xbetrio66zbetvn138i9betvipfi88clubcf68onbet88ee88typhu88onbetonbetkhuyenmai12bet-moblie12betmoblietaimienphi247vi68clupcf68clupvipbeti9betqh88onb123onbefsoi cầunổ hũbắn cáđá gàđá gàgame bàicasinosoi cầuxóc đĩagame bàigiải mã giấc mơbầu cuaslot gamecasinonổ hủdàn đềBắn cácasinodàn đềnổ hũtài xỉuslot gamecasinobắn cáđá gàgame bàithể thaogame bàisoi cầukqsssoi cầucờ tướngbắn cágame bàixóc đĩa开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育亚新体育亚新体育亚新体育爱游戏爱游戏爱游戏华体会华体会华体会IM体育IM体育沙巴体育沙巴体育PM体育PM体育AG尊龙AG尊龙AG尊龙AG百家乐AG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人<AG真人<皇冠体育皇冠体育PG电子PG电子万博体育万博体育KOK体育KOK体育欧宝体育江南体育江南体育江南体育半岛体育半岛体育半岛体育凯发娱乐凯发娱乐杏彩体育杏彩体育杏彩体育FB体育PM真人PM真人<米乐娱乐米乐娱乐天博体育天博体育开元棋牌开元棋牌j9九游会j9九游会开云体育AG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人爱游戏华体会华体会im体育kok体育开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育欧宝体育ob体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育开云体育开云体育棋牌棋牌沙巴体育买球平台新葡京娱乐开云体育mu88qh88