John Wayne: Communist Obsession

In the 1930s, John Wayne was neither involved in politics nor knew much about it.

“When we first made movies together,” Henry Fonda recalled years later, “the Duke couldn’t even spell politics.”

But shortly after he was elected to the board of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG), in the 1940s, Wayne said he began to be aware of the leftist movement in the industry. “Once you get sensitized to it,” he said, “you’d begin to be aware of cracks at our president, the flag, patriotism,” attitudes he described as “a kind of sneering.”

Wayne’s real involvement in political issues began during the Second World War, after being rejected for service in the Army. Enlistment was important to him; he even appealed to John Ford, then a Lieutenant Commander in the Navy, for help, but to no avail. This rejection was a severe blow to his ego since most stars were drafted–and received tremendous publicity for it.

Wayne’s patriotic feelings were thus compounded by guilt over portraying military heroes, without participating in the actual fighting. His subsequent obsession with making inspirational war pictures stemmed from personal frustration at not having fought in any war.

Wayne’s contribution to the War effort, like that of other actors who were not drafted, was to make personal appearances in military camps. In 1944, he went on a three-month USO mission, entertaining soldiers in the Pacific bases and battle lines, from Brisbane Australia to the front on New Britain.  He visited wounded soldiers in hospitals during the day, and at night appeared in shows.

In a press conference he gave upon return, his message to the American public was “Write Letters.” “The boys are starved for news from home,” he explained, and “the biggest day in their lives over there is when the mailman hands them an envelope postmarked the United States.” The soldiers “are not thinking about any trouble at home because they are too busy fighting a war, but they do want to be sure they have something to say when they get back.”

World War II created a strange situation because the Soviet Union became, for the first time, a political ally of the United States. As a result, many Americans supported its policies and were openly pro-Soviet.  This relationship did not last long, however, and as soon as the War was over, the situation changed dramatically. Wayne said he became politically conscious at the end of WWII, when he became conscious of Communist infiltrations into the film industry.

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals

In 1944, Wayne joined a group of actors, writers, and directors as a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPA).  The group was established with the explicit goal of fighting the leftist movement in the movie colony. Among its founders were: Jim McGuiness, MGM’s production head (the organization started at an informal meeting in his house), Roy Brewer, the theatrical union leader, directors Leo McCarey and Sam Wood, and actors Clark Gable, Robert Taylor, Ward Bond, and Adolphe Menjou, and screenwriters Borden Chase and Morrie Riskind.

MPA’s first president was director Sam Wood, who was followed by Clark Gable and Robert Taylor. Wayne became president in 1949, serving three terms, until 1952, during the heyday of Senator Joseph McCarthy’s reign and the hearings of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAAC).  Some claim that Wayne was forced to join the MPA to please his more conservative friends.

Studio executives warned Wayne that his affiliation would ruin his career. “You’re becoming a controversial figure,” they reportedly said, “It will kill you at the box office. You will hit the skids.” Ironically, a year after being elected as president of MPA, Wayne became the top box office attraction in America. Wayne said that those who warned him, “must have meant it would ruin me with the Moscow fan clubs,” because “when I became president of the Alliance, I was 32nd on the box office polls, but last year I’d skidded up near the top.” Wayne remained at the top in 1950 and 1952, and in 1953 he slipped to third place on the popularity polls.


The HUAAC had been in existence since the 1930s, when Martin Dies was its chairman.  Dies was convinced that the Communist Party was responsible for the propaganda which he thought appeared in “Fury” (1936), a socially conscious film against lynching; “Blockade” (1938), about the Spanish Civil War; and “Juarez” (1939), which dealt with the Mexican revolutionary leader, making allusions to the current political situation in Europe.  He also published articles on the order of “The Reds in Hollywood,” and “Is Communism Invading the Movies,” which contributed to the anti-Communist hysteria at the time.

During the War, the HUAAC was inactive–for obvious reasons. But on September 25, 1947, it renewed its investigations into the extent of Communist infiltration in Hollywood. The film industry was determined to demonstrate its political “cleanliness” even earlier.

The big studios regretted having produced such pro-Soviet movies as Warner’s Mission to Moscow” (1944), based on the career of U.S. ambassador Joseph E. Davies in Russia, or MGM’s Song of Russia” (also 1944), which described the Russian War effort with utmost admiration.

In 1948, Darryl Zanuck produced the prototypical anti-Communist picture, “The Iron Curtain,” the story of a clerk in the Russian Embassy in Canada, who exposed a Russian spy network. It did not matter that this and other movies, such as “The Red Menace,” “The Red Danube,” and “The Woman on Pier Thirteen” (originally titled “I Married a Communist”) were panned by the critics, failed at the box-office, and were banned from release in some European countries.

The political hysteria in Hollywood reached unprecedented dimensions and has been well documented in several books. It got to the point where Lela Rogers, Ginger’s mother and vice president at RKO, was asked to examine all screenplays for questionable content; she was proud to declare that she found a line in Tender Comrade” (1943), which stated: “share and share alike, that’s the meaning of democracy.”

Dalton Trumbo, who wrote the screenplay, later became one of the Hollywood Ten. The “Friendly Witnesses” of HUAAC included many Hollywood celebrities, such as Gary Cooper, who reportedly condemned Communism, because “it was not on the level,” whatever that meant. Or Adolphe Menjou, whose credo was that Communism could be expressed by players “by a look, by an inflection, by a change in the voice.”

Ayn Rand’s booklet, “Screen Guide for Americans,” published by the MPA and widely distributed throughout the studios, warned: “Don’t Smear Industrialists,” “Don’t Smear the Free Enterprise System,” and “Don’t Smear Success.” It also advised: “Don’t ever use any lines about ‘the common man,’ or ‘the little people,'” because “It is not the American idea to be either ‘common’ or ‘little.'” Furthermore, she was against telling people that “man is helpless, twisted, drooling, sniveling, neurotic weakling,” and in favor of showing the world, “an American kind of man.”


xosotin chelseathông tin chuyển nhượngcâu lạc bộ bóng đá arsenalbóng đá atalantabundesligacầu thủ haalandUEFAevertonxosokeonhacaiketquabongdalichthidau7m.newskqbdtysokeobongdabongdalufutebol ao vivofutemaxmulticanaisonbetbsport.fitonbet88.oooi9bet.bizhi88.ooookvip.atf8bet.atfb88.cashvn88.cashshbet.atbóng đá world cupbóng đá inter milantin juventusbenzemala ligaclb leicester cityMUman citymessi lionelsalahnapolineymarpsgronaldoserie atottenhamvalenciaAS ROMALeverkusenac milanmbappenapolinewcastleaston villaliverpoolfa cupreal madridpremier leagueAjaxbao bong da247EPLbarcelonabournemouthaff cupasean footballbên lề sân cỏbáo bóng đá mớibóng đá cúp thế giớitin bóng đá ViệtUEFAbáo bóng đá việt namHuyền thoại bóng đágiải ngoại hạng anhSeagametap chi bong da the gioitin bong da lutrận đấu hôm nayviệt nam bóng đátin nong bong daBóng đá nữthể thao 7m24h bóng đábóng đá hôm naythe thao ngoai hang anhtin nhanh bóng đáphòng thay đồ bóng đábóng đá phủikèo nhà cái onbetbóng đá lu 2thông tin phòng thay đồthe thao vuaapp đánh lô đềdudoanxosoxổ số giải đặc biệthôm nay xổ sốkèo đẹp hôm nayketquaxosokq xskqxsmnsoi cầu ba miềnsoi cau thong kesxkt hôm naythế giới xổ sốxổ số 24hxo.soxoso3mienxo so ba mienxoso dac bietxosodientoanxổ số dự đoánvé số chiều xổxoso ket quaxosokienthietxoso kq hôm nayxoso ktxổ số megaxổ số mới nhất hôm nayxoso truc tiepxoso ViệtSX3MIENxs dự đoánxs mien bac hom nayxs miên namxsmientrungxsmn thu 7con số may mắn hôm nayKQXS 3 miền Bắc Trung Nam Nhanhdự đoán xổ số 3 miềndò vé sốdu doan xo so hom nayket qua xo xoket qua xo so.vntrúng thưởng xo sokq xoso trực tiếpket qua xskqxs 247số miền nams0x0 mienbacxosobamien hôm naysố đẹp hôm naysố đẹp trực tuyếnnuôi số đẹpxo so hom quaxoso ketquaxstruc tiep hom nayxổ số kiến thiết trực tiếpxổ số kq hôm nayso xo kq trực tuyenkết quả xổ số miền bắc trực tiếpxo so miền namxổ số miền nam trực tiếptrực tiếp xổ số hôm nayket wa xsKQ XOSOxoso onlinexo so truc tiep hom nayxsttso mien bac trong ngàyKQXS3Msố so mien bacdu doan xo so onlinedu doan cau loxổ số kenokqxs vnKQXOSOKQXS hôm naytrực tiếp kết quả xổ số ba miềncap lo dep nhat hom naysoi cầu chuẩn hôm nayso ket qua xo soXem kết quả xổ số nhanh nhấtSX3MIENXSMB chủ nhậtKQXSMNkết quả mở giải trực tuyếnGiờ vàng chốt số OnlineĐánh Đề Con Gìdò số miền namdò vé số hôm nayso mo so debach thủ lô đẹp nhất hôm naycầu đề hôm naykết quả xổ số kiến thiết toàn quốccau dep 88xsmb rong bach kimket qua xs 2023dự đoán xổ số hàng ngàyBạch thủ đề miền BắcSoi Cầu MB thần tàisoi cau vip 247soi cầu tốtsoi cầu miễn phísoi cau mb vipxsmb hom nayxs vietlottxsmn hôm naycầu lô đẹpthống kê lô kép xổ số miền Bắcquay thử xsmnxổ số thần tàiQuay thử XSMTxổ số chiều nayxo so mien nam hom nayweb đánh lô đề trực tuyến uy tínKQXS hôm nayxsmb ngày hôm nayXSMT chủ nhậtxổ số Power 6/55KQXS A trúng roycao thủ chốt sốbảng xổ số đặc biệtsoi cầu 247 vipsoi cầu wap 666Soi cầu miễn phí 888 VIPSoi Cau Chuan MBđộc thủ desố miền bắcthần tài cho sốKết quả xổ số thần tàiXem trực tiếp xổ sốXIN SỐ THẦN TÀI THỔ ĐỊACầu lô số đẹplô đẹp vip 24hsoi cầu miễn phí 888xổ số kiến thiết chiều nayXSMN thứ 7 hàng tuầnKết quả Xổ số Hồ Chí Minhnhà cái xổ số Việt NamXổ Số Đại PhátXổ số mới nhất Hôm Nayso xo mb hom nayxxmb88quay thu mbXo so Minh ChinhXS Minh Ngọc trực tiếp hôm nayXSMN 88XSTDxs than taixổ số UY TIN NHẤTxs vietlott 88SOI CẦU SIÊU CHUẨNSoiCauVietlô đẹp hôm nay vipket qua so xo hom naykqxsmb 30 ngàydự đoán xổ số 3 miềnSoi cầu 3 càng chuẩn xácbạch thủ lônuoi lo chuanbắt lô chuẩn theo ngàykq xo-solô 3 càngnuôi lô đề siêu vipcầu Lô Xiên XSMBđề về bao nhiêuSoi cầu x3xổ số kiến thiết ngày hôm nayquay thử xsmttruc tiep kết quả sxmntrực tiếp miền bắckết quả xổ số chấm vnbảng xs đặc biệt năm 2023soi cau xsmbxổ số hà nội hôm naysxmtxsmt hôm nayxs truc tiep mbketqua xo so onlinekqxs onlinexo số hôm nayXS3MTin xs hôm nayxsmn thu2XSMN hom nayxổ số miền bắc trực tiếp hôm naySO XOxsmbsxmn hôm nay188betlink188 xo sosoi cầu vip 88lô tô việtsoi lô việtXS247xs ba miềnchốt lô đẹp nhất hôm naychốt số xsmbCHƠI LÔ TÔsoi cau mn hom naychốt lô chuẩndu doan sxmtdự đoán xổ số onlinerồng bạch kim chốt 3 càng miễn phí hôm naythống kê lô gan miền bắcdàn đề lôCầu Kèo Đặc Biệtchốt cầu may mắnkết quả xổ số miền bắc hômSoi cầu vàng 777thẻ bài onlinedu doan mn 888soi cầu miền nam vipsoi cầu mt vipdàn de hôm nay7 cao thủ chốt sốsoi cau mien phi 7777 cao thủ chốt số nức tiếng3 càng miền bắcrồng bạch kim 777dàn de bất bạion newsddxsmn188betw88w88789bettf88sin88suvipsunwintf88five8812betsv88vn88Top 10 nhà cái uy tínsky88iwinlucky88nhacaisin88oxbetm88vn88w88789betiwinf8betrio66rio66lucky88oxbetvn88188bet789betMay-88five88one88sin88bk88xbetoxbetMU88188BETSV88RIO66ONBET88188betM88M88SV88Jun-68Jun-88one88iwinv9betw388OXBETw388w388onbetonbetonbetonbet88onbet88onbet88onbet88onbetonbetonbetonbetqh88mu88Nhà cái uy tínpog79vp777vp777vipbetvipbetuk88uk88typhu88typhu88tk88tk88sm66sm66me88me888live8live8livesm66me88win798livesm66me88win79pog79pog79vp777vp777uk88uk88tk88tk88luck8luck8kingbet86kingbet86k188k188hr99hr99123b8xbetvnvipbetsv66zbettaisunwin-vntyphu88vn138vwinvwinvi68ee881xbetrio66zbetvn138i9betvipfi88clubcf68onbet88ee88typhu88onbetonbetkhuyenmai12bet-moblie12betmoblietaimienphi247vi68clupcf68clupvipbeti9betqh88onb123onbefsoi cầunổ hũbắn cáđá gàđá gàgame bàicasinosoi cầuxóc đĩagame bàigiải mã giấc mơbầu cuaslot gamecasinonổ hủdàn đềBắn cácasinodàn đềnổ hũtài xỉuslot gamecasinobắn cáđá gàgame bàithể thaogame bàisoi cầukqsssoi cầucờ tướngbắn cágame bàixóc đĩa开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育亚新体育亚新体育亚新体育爱游戏爱游戏爱游戏华体会华体会华体会IM体育IM体育沙巴体育沙巴体育PM体育PM体育AG尊龙AG尊龙AG尊龙AG百家乐AG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人<AG真人<皇冠体育皇冠体育PG电子PG电子万博体育万博体育KOK体育KOK体育欧宝体育江南体育江南体育江南体育半岛体育半岛体育半岛体育凯发娱乐凯发娱乐杏彩体育杏彩体育杏彩体育FB体育PM真人PM真人<米乐娱乐米乐娱乐天博体育天博体育开元棋牌开元棋牌j9九游会j9九游会开云体育AG百家乐AG百家乐AG真人AG真人爱游戏华体会华体会im体育kok体育开云体育开云体育开云体育乐鱼体育乐鱼体育欧宝体育ob体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育亚博体育开云体育开云体育棋牌棋牌沙巴体育买球平台新葡京娱乐开云体育mu88qh88