Deer Hunter, The (1978): Violence and Male Camaraderie

In its July 1982 issue, in an article titled, “Can Movies Kill ” American Film magazine reported that28 people died from playing Russian Roulette, apparently after watching “The Deer Hunter.” By 1986, the number of related deaths was estimated to be 43.

The film’s presumably direct effect called attention to the potential impact of powerful movies. The connection between “The Deer Hunter” and Russian Roulette deaths was originally made by Handgun Control. In 1980, Handgun Control began working with the National Coalition on Television Violence (NCTV).

When the movie was offered to the networks in 1979, it was refused. “Deer Hunter” eventually aired on HBO and independent stations. But why “Deer Hunter” Does the camaraderie among the film’s characters have something to do with it

Other major magazines also ran critical stories. “The Deer Hunter invents cruelties to sell Vietnam,” wrote Harper’s in April 1979. “Deer Hunter called insult to Vietnam,” declared the Current Digest of the Soviet Press, April 4 1979. “Deer Hunter Violence Cues CBS Problem,” Variety declared in November 28 1979.

Fishbain, David A. with James R. Fletcher and Timothy E. Aldrich. “Relationship Between Russian Roulette Deaths and Risk-taking Behavior: A Controlled Study.” The American Journal of Psychiatry, May 1987.

Controversies about the film’s graphic depiction of violence as it pertains to issues of patriotism, media accuracy, and censorship followed in both the popular and more academic press. “What’s Allowed on TV: Pressures for Change are Mounting,” wrote the New York Times, on November 2 1980. Richard Grenier defined “A New Patriotism” in Commentary, April 1979. Hanus J. Grosz explored “Russian Roulette and Suicide,” in the American Journal of Psychiatry, November 1987.

The film starts with ordinary life in a small Pennsylvania steel town, then sharply switches to Vietnam. It says something about male friendship and camaraderie, survival of ordeals, violence in political and personal contexts, and even family life, though none too deep. There was no doubt that the picture was stronger in its lyrical-expressive imagery than in its story or ideas.

The film became a subject of major controversies: It was described by various groups as Fascist, racist, historically inaccurate, and small-minded. While some critics dismissed its grand ambitions and epic scale, audience responded with anguish and regret.

David Thomson has noted that few movies have stirred viewers as emotionally and powerfully as The Deer Hunter. For him, Cimino has made a stirring picture, large enough to contain its flaws. “The Deer Hunter” is not a politically correct film, but one of the few American films that understands the outrage and mistake within hope.

Among the film’s many virtues are:

The Working class milieu is depicted without condescension; The shift of tone and pace as it moves from small-town doldrums to the cruel jungle of Southeast Asia; The desperate tension of the first roulette sequence; The group behavior of De Niro, Walken, Cazale, Savage, and Dzundza; The forlorn attempt at love between De Niro and Steep; The tension and lyrical air of the hunting sequences; The notion of a blinded, battered American self-belief struggling to move forward

Cimino’s drama concerns three Pennsylvania steelworkers whose lives are shattered by their Vietnam. The three are about to enter the service to fight in Vietnam following one’s wedding. Another, the reticent member of the trio, likes hunting and seems awkward around women. The third is the liveliest and the most sensitive; he confides to the hunter, that when they hunt he goes along only because he likes the trees. The newlywed is the youngest and most pliable.

The first part of the film explores the comradeship of this tightly knit group during the wedding. A banner in the wedding hall reads: “Serving God and Country Proudly.” Following the wedding, the hunter and the lively one are alone in an empty street where the conversation turns to Vietnam. “Whatever happens,” the lively one tells his friend Michael, “Don’t leave me there. You gotta promise.” The next day, they are joined by other friends on a hunting trip during which Michael stalks and kills a deer.

In Vietnam, the three friends are captures and forced to engage in Russian roulette while their captors bet on the outcome. The hunter initiates a plan of escape by turning the pistol on the enemy soldiers. They make it back to Saigon, where the other two are hospitalized. The torture has shattered the lively one who goes A.W.O.L. Meanwhile, the newlywed loses both legs. The hunter is discharged but returns to search for the A.W.O.L. friend. He finds his friend playing Russian roulette for money and drugs. As He places the revolver to his head, the hunter pleads with him to return home.

But it is too late. Michael watches as the gun fires into his friend’s temple. Back again in Pennsylvania, Michael attends the funeral along with other close friends. Later in the back room of the local bar, where the small group is assembled, they all are at a loss for words. They then slowly break out in a chorus, singing “God Bless America.” Was the closure ironic Not for Cimino, who thought that this was a genuine expression of faith in the country, patriotism despite the horror and price of Vietnam.

From its earliest showings, the film was stalked by controversy. Some critics attacked the stereotyped depiction of the enemy as a throwback to Hollywood’s World War II films, in which all the Japanese as vile and sadistic. Others objected to the distortion of history, claiming that the film was “a criminal violation of the truth,” singling out its images of all non-Americans as corrupt and depraved. Still other critics attacked the principal metaphor for the insanity of war, the game of Russian roulette, as entirely fictitious. However, the film has as many supporters who found the work powerful and emotionally moving.

In 1978, the troubled legacy of Vietnam fueled the two front-runners in the Oscar race: “Coming Home,” in which a disabled vet confronts indifference and impotence, and “The Deer Hunter,” which probed the darker recesses of the mind in chronicling how a trio of steel-worker buddies were damaged by their tour of duty.

“The Deer Hunter” confronted audiences with the brutality of war in an intense, unprecedented manner. If “Ryan” provided a revisionist view of WWII, “Deer Hunter” fanned the already white-hot debate about America’s involvement in Vietnam.”

Allan Carr, hired by Universal to promote “The Deer Hunter,” booked the film for one-week engagements in New York and Los Angeles, which was unconventional at that time. To create a buzz, he screened first in New York for influential critics and journalists. The Los Angeles screenings were strictly for Academy members and special invitation-only audiences. Then, Universal pulled the film from circulation.

When the Oscar nominations were about to be announced, Universal released the film nation-wide, amidst rave reviews. Moviegoers who had already heard the raves, were eager to see it. Carr’s planning was rewarded with nine Oscar nominations, including Best Actor (De Niro), Supporting Actor (Walken), and Supporting Actress (Streep), Director, and Original screenplay. The film won five awards, including Picture and Director, while anti-“Deer Hunter” protesters clashed with police outside the auditorium.

The triumph of “Deer Hunter” represented the culmination of a decade in which the majors gave filmmakers the kind of creative latitude not seen since. “Deer Hunter” and Malick’s “Days of Heaven” were released at a time when maverick directors, such as Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Bob Rafelson and Paul Schrader were producing their most daring and personal work.

Malick earned honors from the National Society of Film Critics and the New York Film Critics Circle for Days of Heaven, an “impressionistic tale of a fractured love triangle in turn-of-the-century Texas — that had the most heads turning to recognize a work of unforeseen audacity.” At Oscar time, Days of Heaven only earned four nominations, winning just one for cinematography.

While De Niro lost the Oscar to Jon Voight’s paraplegic vet in “Coming Home,” his nomination in 1978 was his third (1974, “The Godfather”-win for best supporting actor; 1976, “Taxi Driver” – a nomination for best actor). Since then he has won another Oscar (1980, “Raging Bull”) and been nominated several times. Voight’ win reaffirmed the Academy’s tendency to favor actors who played mentally or physically disabled characters. Meryl Streep was a nominee in 1978 for “The Deer Hunter,” and won two Oscars: Supporting for “Kramer Vs. Kramer” in 1979 and lead for “Sophie’s Choice” in 1982.

If you want to read more about these issues, please consult my book, All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Award.