Movie Genres: Melodrama–Genre, Approach, Directors, Gender

Research in progress: March 19, 2022–614 words

Actors

Appeal/audience

Approach

Censorship: Impact

Connotations

Consumer Culture

Context (filmic and other)

Directors

Gay viewers

Gender

Genre

Goals

History: Melodrama’s historical variability, multi-faceted structure

Star Images

Status

Subservient

Mulvey, Laura

Williams, Linda

 

Approaches to Melodrama:

  1. as a genre
  2. as a style
  3. as a critical tool
  4. as a mode/rhetoric
  5. as sensibility
  6. as aesthetics
  7. as camp

 

Melodrama: Goals

For some critics, melodrama has 3 goals:

  1. Dramatic continuity of plot
  2. Sentimental (emotional) identification with characters
  3. Graduation of sequences (almost musical-like)

Melodrama: Connotations

Brooks

Characters at the intersection of primal ethical forces and the clash of these forces.

The indulgence of strong emotionalism

Moral polarization and schematization of good/evil

Extremes states of being, situations, actions, crises

Good/Evil: Overt villainy, persecution of the good, and the final renewal of virtue

Inflated and extravagant expression

Internal emotional and ethical drama

Darkplotting

Suspense

Breathtaking peripety

Allowing the viewers to have the pleasure of self-pity

The experience of wholeness

Identification with monopathic emotion

Melodrama: Definition 

The term was used pejoratively.

The cultural specificity of the term/genre (like romanticism and baroque)

Melodrama, not as a set of themes, or a genre, but as a mode of conception and expression; a certain fictional system for making sense; a semantic field of force.

Attributes (B. Klinger)

Impossibility of happiness

Theme of blindness: characters (mis)perception of the world

Mise en scene

Obvious artifice;

Visual artifice: conveys a sense of delusory and the characters’ impotence

Unnaturalistic lighting

Foregrounded objects

Mirror-ridden compositions

Melodrama is an excessive narrative form, used to articulate moral conflicts as an expression of modern sensibility, shifting away from faith in a divine order to a new preoccupation with the moral occult (Mercer and Shingler)

Directors associated with Melodrama:

Critics and scholars have favored the melodramas of certain directors, King Vidor, Minnelli, Douglas Sirk, over those by Michael Curtiz and Joseph Mankiewicz

Prevalence of Gay Directors:

Minnelli

Irving Rapper

George Cukor did not make many melodramas; his specialty was comedy or dramedy.

Gender

Melodrama is a genre intrinsic to the so-called “women’s film.”

Films meant for women, but always made by men (in studio era).

They construct a female spectator “who is made to participate in what is essentially a masochistic fantasy.”

Disturbance about gender roles and social positions

Transgression:

S. Hayward, Melodrama, p. 68

If fathers transgress, the  whole family suffers and is punished.

If women transgress, they are personally punished, and punishment is wreaked upon their bodies

Examples: Kramer Vs. Kramer, Terms of Endearment, Fatal Attraction

Genre

Most critics and viewers have regarded Hollywood melodrama as a femme-centric genre.

But a closer look reveals that there are at three types of melodramas:

Male-Centric

Male weepies

Male melodrama is part of family melodrama.

But how different from female-centered melodrama

Mulvey: male melodramas tend to resolve the irreconcilable social and sexual dilemmas

In 1950s, masculinity dictates that males need to reassure and reassert the role of the patriarch within the family unit.

But films with female protagos, the dilemmas remain and resolution cannot be achieved.

Rebel Without a Cause

East of Eden

Not as a Stranger

Some Came Running

 

Female-Centric

Magnificent Obsession (1934, 1954)

All That Heaven Allows

Picnic

Peyton Place

 

Family-Centric (Dynasty at Center)

Giant

Written on the Wind

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

The Long Hot Summer

God’s Little Acre

Melodrama Definition:

Oppression of women within the family

Marriage Vs. Career (Imitation of Life)

Motherhood (rewards, proce)

Disturbance about gender roles and social positions

Audience: Gay Men

Most American audiences are not capable of appreciating melodrama as an art form; they tend to take it as camp.

The most conspicuous group of 1950s family melodramas were gay men.

Gay male appreciation of these films, due to their unintentional manifestation of camp